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Improving the efficiency of the waste collection service through the optimisation of the technologi
City/Region : Tiana City Council , Spain

In order to improve the efficiency of the door-to-door waste collection system and to work with more reliable data, the municipality of Tiana has implanted a new collection system based on RFID technology.

This transformative action has been launched by the municipality of Tiana and, apart from improving the efficiency of the door-to-door waste collection system, aims to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the management of municipal waste. The more waste we collect, less CO2 emissions are emitted.

Agendas addressed
Climate change
Pathways followed
  • Wisely select and apply smart technologies
  • Accelerate sustainability and innovation through public procurement
Context
Truck technology and antena

Tiana’s commitment to preventive waste management goes back to 2000 when it was the first municipality in Catalonia to implement the door-to-door collection of organic waste and residual waste. This led to a drastic change in municipal waste management.

Some problems associated with the model implemented appeared after some years:

  •  Saturation and misuse of the emergency areas
  •  Increase in improper waste collected in container
  •  Misuse of community containers and multifamily containers
  •  Manual control of citizen participation with nocturnal monitoring by the municipal workers
  •  Manual control of incidents

In 2013 a survey carried out among 12% of Tiana’s population, determined that 72% of the citizens would approve the introduction of a tax associated with waste generation. Three actions were raised:

1. Linking the contribution of all households

2. Homogenisation of the contribution system

3. Implementing technologies to automate monitoring of incidents

In Action
Bins 2

The new model of waste collection has multiple components:

  • To provide citizens with waste bins (20l) for organic and not usable waste.
  • To add TAGs to bins linked to the address.
  • To read all bins collected via RFID.
  • To monitor of households who make regular use of the system door to door, minimizing waste escapes to emergency areas and street containers.
  • To monitor the efficiency of the collection service.
  • To implement a tax associated with waste generation.

The aim is to increase the participation of citizens in the collection of organic and general waste.

A communication campaign was launched on 29 March 2014 and ended on 27 May.

First of all, the municipality of Tiana mailed information to all households. An information point was established with a team of three environmental educators and a coordinator that delivered the kit and gave proper information to users about the new model of containers and how they associate user data with TAG.

Moreover, a door-to-door information campaign was done for those citizens who hadn’t gone to the information point. For those who weren’t at home, we mailed them and directed them to the information point.

The main goal of the campaign was to deliver the kit to 100% of households in Tiana.

Using the technology in the organic waste bins, the city council of Tiana can work more efficiently and with more reliable data.

The technology implemented is:

1) TAG RFID UHF

  • You can schedule delivery and assign a code identifying the waste bins and the user.

2) DEVICE RECEIVERS on board
High frequency antennaes with Bluetooth connection to the device management on board collection vehicles.

  • System multi-reading unlimited high frequency UHF.
  • Allows entry of incidents associated with GAD.

3) MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE

  • Export data in multiple formats and GIS.
  • Automated and customised reports.

The organic waste bins are taken by the neighbours from their kitchen to the street. They have integrated a TAC that is associated with each home. This TAC is read by the collection vehicles through an RFID antenna. It is a high frequency antenna and if there are any problems with the waste bins, i.e. the garbage is not collected or removed correctly, it can be reported by the workers.

Results
Platform

The main results of this transformative action are:

- Greater participation of residents in the door-to-door collection, in terms of organic and other waste

- Increased number of homes participating in the door to door collection

- Improving the image of the public zone

- Decreased presence of abandoned bags at public zones

- Reduction of the amount of waste deposited in emergency areas, especially bags of unusable waste

In 2015, the municipality of Tiana collected 700,280 kg of organic waste with the door-to-door waste collection system, which represents 16% of the total waste collected.

If we analyse the evolution of the amount of organic waste collected in the years 2013-2014-2015, we observe that 2015 is the year with the most kg collected. Besides, the biggest difference in the amount of kg collected was from 2013 to 2014, with an increase of 55 tones.

We can summarise that the implementation of the RFID technology since 2014 has had really positive results in terms of the amount of organic waste collected.

Impact

In order to assess the impact of the objectives mentioned in the summary, we have developed several indicators:

1-Percentage of municipal waste collected destined to recovery and recycling treatments.

(To measure our general goal of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in the municipality of Tiana associated with the management of municipal waste)

To measure our specific goal of improving the efficiency of the municipal waste collect service, we have developed three different indicators:

  • Percentage of traceability of the door-to-door collection process
  • Participation index of the door-to-door selective collection service
  • Number of incidents/problems during collection (abandoned bags in the streets, overflow in emergency areas)

In order to measure the expected results, we will use the following indicators:

  • Number of vehicles in the collection fleet equipped with the RFID reading technology
  • Percentage of households using new containers equipped with a chip for door-to-door collection
  • Evolution of the quantity of waste collected for organic waste and general waste
  • Percentage of inappropriate waste in the organic and general waste containers
  • Evolution of the number of incidents/problems on the street due to the system waste collection
Challenges and lessons learned
Truck and technology

The main challenges identified were:

  • to decrease the CO2 emissions in Tiana.
  • to improve the taxation system for waste collection.
  • that citizen becomes more responsible in the management of the waste that they generate.
  • using the big data information to better address the awareness campaigns about waste reduction.

Some lessons learned:

  • There is a need to implement a system to hold the bins so that they don’t move due to weather conditions.
  • To properly analyse all the information collected with the RFID system we need to increase the resources for information management.
More information
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